Scientific Methods Review Page

 

What Science Is and Is Not

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What is the goal of science?

making observations to understand and explain nature and using that understanding to make predictions

 

 

Evidence Based on Observation

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What does observation involve?

Observation involves using one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell) to gather information. The information gathered through observation is called data.

The information gathered from observation is called evidence, or ________.

data

 

 

Types of Observations

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Type of observation Observations involve Example
Quantitative Numbers counting cells in a specimen
Qualitative
Characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted color of a leaf

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What is an inference?

An inference is a logical interpretation of data.

What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific problem.

 

 

 

Multiple Choice!

A hypothesis should be
something that can be tested
CORRECT!!!
something that can never be proven wrong

A hypothesis can be based on
all of these choices
CORRECT!!!
prior knowledge
Did you read all the choices?
logical inferences
Did you read all the choices?
guesses
Did you read all the choices?

Which of the following is FALSE?
When you test a hypothesis,
you might find out the hypothesis was worthless!
CORRECT!!! Even if the hypothesis was incorrect, we can still learn valuable information.
When you test a hypothesis,
you might find that it is partly true but needs some revision.
Your hypothesis COULD be partially correct.
You may just need to adjust the hypothesis a little.
When you test a hypothesis,
you might find that it is completely wrong.
You could be completely wrong…but you can still learn from having a wrong hypothesis!
When you test a hypothesis,
you might discover that the hypothesis is supported by evidence.
Sometimes we find out that our hypothesis was completely correct!

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What are the variables in an experiment?

factors that can be changed

 

 

How many variables should be tested in a controlled experiment?
one
CORRECT!!!
two or three
as many as you want

When a variable is kept unchanged in an experiment, it is called
controlled
CORRECT!!!
manipulated
dependent
responding

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Type of Variable Definition
Manipulated variable that is deliberately changed
Responding
varibale that is observed; Changes as a result of the manipulated variable

How a Theory Develops

 

 

In science, what is a theory?

When a particular hypothesis becomes well supported by evidence from numerous investigations, scientists will consider it a theory.

 

 

 

True or False?

A theory may be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation.
true
CORRECT!!!
false

 

A Common Measurement System

 

 

Why do scientists need a common system of measurement?

A common system of measurement allows for easier sharing and comparing of data.

What system of measurement do most scientists use?

the metric system

What is the metric system?

The metric system is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on multiples of 10.

 

 

1000 meters = 1 ________
kilometer
CORRECT!!!
decimeter
millimeter
centimeter

1 liter = ______ milliliters
1,000
CORRECT!!!
100
1/1,000

1 gram = 1,000 ______
milligrams
CORRECT!!!
kilograms
centigrams

1,000 kilograms = 1 ______
megagram
CORRECT!!!
centigram
decigram

Adapted from a Georgia Virtual Learning activity