1. One point for each vocabulary word you were able to use appropriately, up to ten.
  2. One point for each of three listed properties of water.
    • neutral molecule :  water has the same number of protons as electrons
    • polarity:  the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule
    • hydrogen bonds: there are weak bonds between polar molecules such as water
    • cohesion: the attraction of like molecules such as the attraction of water molecules to each other.
    • surface tension: when water molecules at the surface of a body of water cling tightly together
    • adhesion: is the attraction of unlike molecules such as when water molecules are attracted to other types of molecules
    • capillary action: the force of water rising in a thin tube due to cohesion and adhesion
  3. acidic and basic (one point each)
  4. One point for each of two acids listed: vinegar, lemon juice, soda, orange juice, and others (RNA and DNA could also be accepted as nucleic acids)
  5. (sample answer – need at least five points and/or vocabulary words) Photosynthesis is the process that provides energy for almost all life. During photosynthesis, autotrophs use the sun’s energy to make carbohydrate molecules from water and carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a byproduct.
  6. (sample answer – need at least five points and/or vocabulary words) Cellular respiration is the process of using oxygen in the mitochondria to chemically break down organic molecules such as glucose to release the energy stored in its bonds. In the process molecules of water and carbon dioxide are released as waste products. Some of the energy is used to make Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, from Adenosine diphosphate and phosphate. ATP is the main energy currency of cells.
  7. (sample answer – need at least five points and/or vocabulary words) Mitosis consists of four basic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. The DNA of a cell copies itself and the chromosomes condense and are organized by the mitotic spindle into rows, which are then pulled to opposite ends of the cell, and two new nuclei are formed as well as nuclear membranes. (There are many vocabulary words that they could use. Here’s one place to see those if that’s how they are hoping to get their points.)
  8. (sample answer – need at least five points and/or vocabulary words) Meiosis in humans is used in the production of gametes, sperm and egg cells. Instead of creating two identical cells like mitosis, it creates cells with exactly half as many chromosomes as the starting cell. It takes a diploid cell (two sets of chromosomes) and creates haploid cells (one set of chromosomes). This is so that when an egg and sperm are joined, a complete diploid cell is created with a new genome.
  9. (sample answer – need at least six points and/or vocabulary words) DNA and RNA are made up of nucleotide consisting of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. However, RNA is a single-strand while DNA is double-stranded. Below is some more vocabulary they could use.
    • Double helix – DNA molecule consists of two nucleotide chains that wrap
      around each other to form a double spiral
      Nucleotides – The monomers that make up DNA and RNA; consists of a
      nitrogen base, a sugar and a phosphate molecule
      Complementary – matching, A, matches T or U; C matches G
      Replication – the process of duplicating the DNA molecule.
      Template – a model for the complementary bases to be brought into their
      appropriate positions; each side of DNA is a template during replication; only
      one side is the template for transcription
      Messenger RNA – mRNA – a single uncoiled strand that transmits
      information from DNA to the ribosomes during protein synthesis.
      Transfer RNA – tRNA – a single folded strand that bonds with a specific
      amino acid.
      Ribosomal RNA – rRNA – a globular form that is the major constituent of
      the ribosomes
      Transcription -the process of forming a mRNA strand from a DNA strand
      Protein synthesis – (same thing as Translation)
      Translation –  the formation of proteins using information coded on DNA and carried out by RNA in the ribosome Codons – a 3-nucleotide mRNA sequence that codes for one specific amino acid
10.  (sample answer – need at least six points and/or vocabulary words)  Each person has two alleles for each gene, which is called a genotype. These two are a combination of one from each parent and is either dominant or recessive. Together they determine the phenotype or appearance of the trait. Dominant ones will show up in the child, while recessive alleles only show up if there isn’t a dominant one.
11.  (sample answer – need two adaptation words and an animal example for each) Ducks imprint on the first thing they see moving, following it even if it isn’t the mother. Chameleons disguise themselves by blending into their environment. A hoverfly mimics a stinging hoverbee to keep away predators. 
12.  (sample answer – need one type of symbiotic relationship, its definition, and an example)

  • Help-Hurt Relationship = parasitism
  • Help-Help Relationship = mutualism
  • Help-Unaffected Relationship = commensalism

An example of commensalism is the remora fish that attaches to the bottom of a shark. The fish gets food and the shark is not harmed. The other types of symbiotic relationships are parasitism, where one is helped and one is hurt, and mutualism, where both in the relationship are helped.

13.  (some sample answers – need to list two)  hunting, damaging the ozone, pollution, acid rain, using non-renewable energy sources

14.  (need two points)  Species have natural variations within them. Those with favorable variations for surviving their habitat survive (known as survival of the fittest) to have children who will then inherit those favorable traits (known as natural selection).

15.  Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria; Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi, Protista, Plants and Animals

16.  (sample answer – need six points)  A virus enters a healthy cell and uses the cell’s own mechanisms to copy and replicate itself. A macrophage destroys the virus, tears it apart, and puts antigens, fragments of the virus, on its surface, which enables to destroy more viruses. To accomplish its task, it unites with helper T cells that recognize the antigens.
17.  (sample answer – need three points) Protists are unicellular, have a single cell. There are plant, animal, and fungi protists. Animal protists have the ability to move. Plant protists photosynthesize. Fungi protists have cell walls and reproduce by forming spores.
18.  (sample answer – need three points)  Fungi consist of molds, yeasts and mushrooms. They are non-phototrophic which means they don’t get their energy from the sun. They are eukaryotic and have rigid cell walls.
19.  (Sample answer: name at least 3 groups, their characteristics, and an example of each)
  • Mollusks; organ systems, primitive brain, unsegmented soft body; snail
  • Annelids; segmented bodies, primitive brain, a through gut (mouth to anus); earthworm
  • Arthropods; segmented body, jointed appendages, exoskeletons, brain; dragonfly
20.  (Sample answer: name at least 3 groups, their characteristics, and an example of each) 

  • Birds; feathers, wings, hollow bones, two legs; robin
  • Mammals; hair on their bodies, mother’s milk for her babies; deer
  • Amphibians; lungs as adults, four limbs, cold-blooded; frog