Fragmentation (divisions based on ethic or cultural identity) has recently become important in world politics. Nationalism, identities based on nationhood, seemed to be declining in favor of increasing globalism. However, national identities remain strong in most parts of the world. The most dramatic is the politicization of religion that has dominated world politics of the early 21st century. For example, in the Middle East, political terrorism has been carried out in the name of Islam and caused tensions between Islamic and Christian states. This rise in ethnic or cultural politics tends to emphasize differences rather than commonalities.
Question to consider:
Does a world divided into political cultural regions threaten a peaceful coexistence?
Samuel Huntington in his article “The Clash of Civilizations” argued that future conflicts would be based clashes of civilizations, or cultures, rather than socioeconomic or ideological differences. He divides the world into different cultural areas that may already be poised to threaten world peace.