The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius introduced the theory of ionization and used this theory to explain much about the behavior of acids and bases.
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An Arrhenius acid is defined as any compound that dissociates in aqueous solution to form ________ ions.
HNO3(aq) → H+(aq) + NO3– (aq)
HCl (aq) →
H+(aq) + Cl– (aq)
An Arrhenius base is defined as any compound that dissociates in aqueous solution to form ______________ ions.
KOH (aq) → K+ (aq) + OH– (aq)
NaOH (aq) →
Na+(aq) + OH-</sup(aq)
Salts are compounds that dissociate in aqueous solution releasing neither ____________ ions nor _________ ions.
KCl (aq) → K+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
NaCl (aq) →
Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
Using the Arrhenius definition, classify the following examples as acids, bases, or salts. Click on Answer to check your response.
Fill in the blanks then highlight the paragraph to check your responses.
Acids and bases can also be identified using an operational definition. Operational definitions are simply a list of properties.
A (1) sour taste is a characteristic property of all acids in aqueous solution.
Acids react with some metals to produce (2) hydrogen gas.
Because aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity, they are identified as (3) electrolytes .
Acids react with bases to produce a (4) salt and water.
Acids turn (5)indicators different colors.
Bases tend to taste (6) bitter and feel (7) slippery .
Like acids, aqueous basic solutions conduct (8) electricity , and are identified as (9) electrolytes .
Bases react with (10) acids to produce a salt and water.
Bases turn (11) indicators different colors.
Word Bank: (may be used more than once)
Naming Acids, Bases, and Salts
Since bases and salts are ionic compounds, they are named in the usual way:
KNO3 is potassium nitrate.
NH4OH is ammonium hydroxide.
KNO2 is potassium oxide.
Al(OH)3 is aluminum hydroxide.
Binary acids consist of two elements, the first being hydrogen. Binary acids are named using the format:
hydro_(root word of second element)__ic acid
Ternary acids consist of three elements. Do NOT use a prefix. Simply change the ending of the polyatomic ion’s name and add the word “acid”:
–ate becomes –ic and –ite becomes –ous
Name the following acids:
H3PO3 is phosphorous acid.
HC2H3O2 is acetic acid.
H2CO3 is carbonic acid.
HClO2 is chlorous acid.
HF is hydrofluoric acid.
H2SO3 is sulfurous acid.
|acetic acid||aluminum hydroxide||ammonium hydroxide|
|carbonic acid||chlorous acid||hydrofluoric acid|
|potassium oxide||potassium nitrate||sulfurous acid|