Ideal gas – a theoretical gas consisting of infinitely small molecules that exert no forces on each other.

Charles Law – the volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, provided the pressure remains constant.

Boyles Law – the volume of a dry gas varies inversely with the pressure exerted on it, provided the temperature remains constant.

Ideal Gas Law – the equation that relates the variables of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas within a closed system.

1st Law of Thermodynamics – defines the internal energy (E) as equal to the difference of the heat transfer (Q) into a system and the work (W) done by the system.

2nd Law of Thermodynamics –   In any cyclic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same.

Heat engine – a system that performs the conversion of heat or thermal energy to mechanical work

Heat pump – a machine or device that effectively moves thermal energy from one location to another location, which is at a higher temperature